Tuesday, May 26, 2020
Learn From Informative Essay SamplesYou can find informative essay samples to use in your writing projects for fourth grade students. Whether you are writing a science-based assignment or writing a memoir or work of fiction, the best use of informative essay samples is to complement your essay rather than merely provide answers to the questions being asked.You will find plenty of writing projects for fourth grade teachers in which essays are to be written to fill in the missing pieces of information. For example, one fourth grade teacher will need to supply the first student or readers in a writing project. If this is a science-based project, a question might ask for the student's attendance record for the past month.In this case, fourth grade teachers and the students will all have different views on how the attendance record might be interpreted, and the use of essays to address these differing viewpoints would provide a better and more complete result than using textbooks and othe r materials. That is not to say that an essay is not important, just that for fourth grade students, providing information that is more inclusive will provide the teacher and the students with more depth of understanding.For fourth grade teachers, knowing the various students' views on certain topics is important in their writing projects. In addition, if the teacher is writing for the primary grade students, then knowing which perspective is generally more acceptable in the classroom is important for the writing project, which will be longer and require a greater level of critical thinking.The type of data that can be included in an academic writing projects will determine what type of project can be used in a math project or a science project. An opinion survey is acceptable to address several different groups of students, but depending on the demographic of the students in the sample, it may be acceptable to use much more opinion-based data in a memoir or work of fiction than a s cience-based project.Fourth grade students are too young to understand why it is appropriate to fill in these gaps in information with a questionnaire or some other form of opinion. They have just moved from first grade to fourth grade and will not appreciate the importance of choosing the most appropriate data to provide in an essay for that age group. Using an opinion survey or a questionnaire to fill in the information that is missing will allow the teachers to use their writing skills to create a more well thought out essay.Fourth grade teachers may need to use more powerful source material to help them meet the different academic writing project requirements. This can be any research that helps to make a point. Essay samples are a great source for essays that use data to support a thesis.
Sunday, May 24, 2020
Prior to the conduction of this study, the researcher sought the approval of the Institutional Review Board with the Protection of Human Subjects in research. The researcher completed re-certification with the Institutional Review Board training on May 29, 2014 (See Appendix C). The researcher provided IRB with information such as research protocol, interview protocol, Demographic Questionnaire, researcherÃ¢â¬â¢s background information, consent form, and investigatorÃ¢â¬â¢s assurance. Upon IRB approval, the research contacted the contacted the Superintendent of each school district for their permission to conduct the study in their districts. Next the principals of the schools were contacted for their permission to interview teachers in their building. At this point, the research was able to contact the participants for an interview. The Principals, after permission was given for the study, were asked to provide the participants e-mail addresses and phone numbers. In this q ualitative phenomenological research, the researcher went to the building that the participantsÃ¢â¬â¢ schools were located for participantsÃ¢â¬â¢ convenience. The researcher followed a protocol of first conducting individual interviews with each of the ten participants. A semi-structured, conversational style of individual interviewing was adopted in order to explore the respondentsÃ¢â¬â¢ stories which made interviewing multiple subjects more methodical (See Appendix A for Interview Protocol). According to Meehan, 20014),Show MoreRelatedThe Ethics Of The Clinical Trials1584 Words Ã |Ã 7 Pagessubjects in the clinical trials. They are USCFR Title21 Part 50, 56 (Protection of Human Subjects and Institutional Review Boards, 1991), and USCFR Title 46 (The Common Rule, 1981). These federal regulations combined with International conference of Harmonization (ICH) will provide significant protection to the human subjects in clinical trials. Clinical trials play a significant role in the drug approval process. Clinical trials provide the confirmation whether or not a drug is safe for a human beingRead MoreEthics Deals With Sets Of Acceptable845 Words Ã |Ã 4 Pagesrather what can be defined as general acceptable behaviors. For instances, each individual perceives and value things differently based on his or her family upbringing and moral background. That is why many governmental agencies, professional, institutional organizations have to put together some set of rules that will guide its members. Some of these rules are written (as in the case of businesses, educational institutions, religious organizations etc.) while in some case, rules are unwritten, ratherRead MoreDrug Fda Center For Drug Evaluation And Research1420 Words Ã |Ã 6 Pages Drug Approval Process - Relevant FDA Centers: The FDAÃ¢â¬â¢s Center for Drug Evaluation and Research (CDER), the largest of six FDA centers, plays an essential rule in public safety and health by ensuring that the available drugs in the market are safe and effective for their proposed use. CDER mission is to regulate new drugs, including over-the-counter and prescription treatments, and provide doctors and patients with necessary information to use these drugs wisely and efficiently. CDER, however,Read MoreEssay On Cardiovascular Disease753 Words Ã |Ã 4 Pagesactivity. Institutional Review Board (IRB) Ethics is critical in research in order to protect participant personal rights and Ã¢â¬Å"maintain credibility of the researcher, the team, and even the organization conducting the research projectÃ¢â¬ (Burian, Rogerson, Maffei III, 2010). Before collecting data from participants, Trident University doctoral students must obtain an approval from the Institutional Review Board (IRB). The latter is a committee including at least five members. The board ensures researchersRead MoreResearch Ethics : The Advancement Of Ethically Sound Research890 Words Ã |Ã 4 PagesResearch ethics review is vital to the advancement of ethically sound research. Before individuals can be enrolled in a clinical study, the research must be approved by a research ethics board (REB), an independent committee composed of medical and scientific experts, ethicists, researchers and healthcare professionals, as well as non-scientific members such as legal and privacy experts and members representing the commu nity. The REBÃ¢â¬â¢s role is to ensure that the proposed research adequately protectsRead MoreThe Health Insurance Portability And Accountability Act ( Hipaa )1113 Words Ã |Ã 5 Pageshealth and well-being. Ã¢â¬Å"(Secretary, H. O. n.d.). Researchers complied with the HIPAA ruling by implementing collection of waivers, consent forms, and surveys, which required approval by an Institutional Review Board (IRB) before data could be used. It appears that for the most part, with proper documentation and proper review and authorization of the documentation, HIPAA has not hindered researchers in their data collection from patients. However, there are those who believed that the implementationRead MoreIntroduction 2 Corporate governance RequirementsÃ¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦..Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦..Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦...Ã¢â¬ ¦.3 The link betwwen1700 Words Ã |Ã 7 Pagesbanking markets involved many important issues regarding to corporate governance regulation for banking enterprises and this includes Changes in regulatory framework In both UK and European Union the Governments and regulators have been encouraging institutional investors to be at the top of the movement towards a new responsible capitalism. The Financial Reporting Council (FRC) announced on 28th Sep 2012 changes in UK Corporate Governance Code and Stewardship Code, as a response to the Euro crisis, alsoRead MoreAnimal Testing And Its Effects On Society1393 Words Ã |Ã 6 Pagescondition. During phase two, studies assist with providing essential information of how the drug should be administrated to the patients. Phase three is solely based on identifying key information that can be provided to the FDA in hopes for the approval of the drug to be marketed. Vital information includes the effectiveness, benefits, risks and safety linked to the drug. After all research has been conducted including the testing of all animal and human studies associated, the New Drug applicationRead MoreIntroduction And Evolution Of Eia1480 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesIntroduction and Evolution of EIA Legislation in Canada Environmental Impact Assessment is widely used in Canada as an instrument for development, planning and decision making. The institutional arrangements fix this purpose are both well developed and administratively complex. Canada is a federal state in which responsibility for EIA is divided between the National Level, ten provinces, two territories, municipal and First Nation jurisdictions. All of these jurisdictions have established operationalRead MoreConventional Hardbound Textbooks or E-Textbooks? Research Methodology1182 Words Ã |Ã 5 Pages Methodology Setting The research will be conducted at the University of Texas at San Antonio (UTSA). Accordingly, the research proposal will be submitted to the Institutional Review Board (IRB) for human subjects review and approval. Participants The sampling frame will consist of freshmen students enrolled in introductory level courses in the math, English, and psychology departments for three consecutive years. A convenience sampling procedure based on the normally occurring matriculation
Tuesday, May 19, 2020
Scars From Vietnam: An Analysis of a SoldierÃ¢â¬â¢s Connection With War Itself in The Things They Carried. Ã¢â¬Å"War is like love, it always finds a way.Ã¢â¬ -Bertolt Brecht War , like love, is always present can be a personÃ¢â¬â¢s worst nightmare, since it always finds ways to emotionally or physically impact oneÃ¢â¬â¢s life. Mary Anne and Norman Bowker in Tim OÃ¢â¬â¢BrienÃ¢â¬â¢s The Things They Carried both possess a strong sense of self certainty, however the war challenges their beliefs by forcing them into extreme situations and thus making them more physically and mentally attached to the war. Mary Anne is seen as a happy andÃ¢â¬ ¦show more contentÃ¢â¬ ¦This causes her to become more attached and dedicated to the war. As the days go by, Mary Anne is becoming more distant from Mark Fossie and more attached to the war. This is obvious when Mark Fossie asks her if she wants to leave Vietnam and she tells him that she does not want to leave, since everything she needs is in Vietnam. Later on, Mary Anne starts joining the Greenies, which is a group of elite army soldiers, who fight in the war. Mary Anne disappears and Mark Fossie ends up finding her with the Greenies, completely changed by the war and a different person. Ã¢â¬Å"Quietly then, she stepped out of the shadowsÃ¢â¬ ¦ For a long while the girl gazed down at Fossie, almost blankley, and in the candlelight her face had the composure of someone perfectly at peaceÃ¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬â¢You re in a placeÃ¢â¬â¢, Mary Anne said softly, Ã¢â¬Ëwhere you don t belong.Ã¢â¬â¢... Rat listened for a long time, then shook his head. Ã¢â¬ËMan, you must be deaf. Shes already gone.Ã¢â¬â¢Ã¢â¬ (OÃ¢â¬â¢Brien, 105-107) As portrayed in the novel, Mary Anne is clearly too attached to the war and cannot leave Vietnam. She leaves Fossie for the war and joins the Greenies, since she cannot move on, for she is held back, due to the war. In a way, Mary Anne is a representation of war itself. She is an example of what war does to a soldier and how it can greatly impact their life, not letting them move on. Norman Bowker comesShow MoreRelatedThe Things They Carried Analysis883 Words Ã |Ã 4 Pagesin his short story Ã¢â¬Å"The Things They Carried,Ã¢â¬ using personal experiences from his time serving in the Vietnam War. Jimmy Cross, the main character who did not believe in the war, was drafted in June 1968. Being commissioned to a foreign territory to fight for your life and the freedoms of others is a life changing experience. Soldiers often bring items from home that give them hope of motivation to survive in order to return home. The short story Ã¢â¬Å"The Things They CarriedÃ¢â¬ gives an insight on whatRead MoreAnalysis of The Things They Carried1048 Words Ã |Ã 5 Pagesquestion of its worth. Usually when someone has done something honorable they know it and accept it as is. However in this case OÃ¢â¬â¢Brien feels that the cost of earning the honor is too great to be justified even if everyone believes he did the right thing. OÃ¢â¬â¢Brien illustrates the uncertainty of the war in Vietnam by alternating clear references of beauty and gore. The butterfly and the Ã¢â¬Å"small blue flowers shaped like bellsÃ¢â¬ he mentions show the stark ugliness and abruptness of death in the midst ofRead MoreAnalysis Of The Things They Carried 1106 Words Ã |Ã 5 PagesBeginning. Thematic Statement: Ã¢â¬Å"The Things They CarriedÃ¢â¬ - The mental and morale that a person go through is intense because it becomes the fundamental that will be throughout the whole story. Device Concrete Detail w/ MLA Commentary Situational Irony of how the soldier talked about Lavender Ã¢â¬Å"They told stories about Ted LavenderÃ¢â¬â¢s supply of tranquilizers, how the poor guy didnÃ¢â¬â¢t feel a thing, how incredibly tranquil he wasÃ¢â¬ (OÃ¢â¬â¢BrienRead MoreAnalysis Of The Things They Carried 2058 Words Ã |Ã 9 PagesTrauma in Lit 12/3/15 The Things They Carried The things they carried was a very interesting book that was filled with various stories. They all took place during the Vietnam War and follow multiple protagonists that reappear in later stories. Throughout the story, there is a vast number of themes and symbolism. One theme I found interesting is the theme of physical and emotional burdens. This was especially noticeable in Ã¢â¬ËÃ¢â¬â¢The Things They CarriedÃ¢â¬â¢Ã¢â¬â¢, where they were carryingRead MoreThe Things They Carried Critical Analysis1538 Words Ã |Ã 7 PagesVietnam War remains an affliction for Vietnam War Veterans and their families. Millions of our youth were forced to leave their home and carry inconceivable burdens. Thus, as a Veteran, Tim OÃ¢â¬â¢Brien can depict thoroughly their burdens in Ã¢â¬Å"The Things They CarriedÃ¢â¬ . His story brings us back to war-torn Vietnam and First Lieutenant Jimmy Cross and his platoon. Cross is the commanding officer; however, he does not co ncentrate on the war but on his unrequited love. As a result, a Viet Cong kills one of hisRead MoreRhetorical Analysis of the Things They Carried1537 Words Ã |Ã 7 PagesMichelle Zhang Dr. Bloomquist 2/13/2015 Rhetorical Analysis A Whole New World: Construction and Destruction in The Things They Carried While the Vietnam War was a complex political pursuit that lasted only a few years, the impact of the war on millions of soldiers and civilians extended for many years beyond its termination. Soldiers killed or were killed; those who survived suffered from physical wounds or were plagued by PTSD from being wounded, watching their platoon mates die violentlyRead MoreAnalysis Of The Movie The Things They Carried 1734 Words Ã |Ã 7 Pages The Actual War Scenario - Vietnam War The Things They Carried, is a novel based on the Vietnam War, and the book reveals the truth of the war as the author remembers the war after twenty one years and snows his guilt and emotions for the war. The Things They Carried, belongs high on the list of the best fiction about any war... crystallizes the Vietnam experiences for everyone and exposes the nature of all war stories.( New York Times, Book of the Century). Tim O Brien, the authorRead MoreAnalysis Of The Book The Things They Carried 2006 Words Ã |Ã 9 Pages 1. Birth-October 1, 1946; present 2. The things they carried was written in the late 1980 s and published in 1990. The novel acts as a response to the era it discusses by solidifying the un-generalized version of war through fictional anecdotes from the narrator and characters. The truth is never portrayed through historic context or media, and with this novel, the author was able to reciprocate the emotions felt by soldiers from the graphic scenes or actions envisioned/written. 3. FactorsRead MoreAnalysis Of The Book The Things They Carried 1409 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesDenali Dickson Butler July 22, 2014 Long Form I. The Author and His Times: 1. Birth- October 1, 1946 to present 2. The Things They Carried was published January 1, 1990. This novel discusses stories from the Vietnam War, written many years afterwards. The book shares stories from several different people during the war and shares the truth as they remember it. 3. The factor that influenced the author in his decision to publish this novel was his desire to share his stories with the world. StoriesRead MoreAnalysis Of The Novel The Things They Carried 1034 Words Ã |Ã 5 Pagesto another it is a fictional piece of literature meant to teach or entertain its audience. Others may go so far as to argue only the truth is of importance in a story. Tim OÃ¢â¬â¢Brien expands on the true significance of a story in his novel The Things They Carried. He uses the scene of a real war with fictional additions to convey the message of the brutality of war, emphasizing the idea of the truth of the story being irrelevant. Similarly, in J. D. SalingerÃ¢â¬â¢s novel, The Catcher in the Rye, Holden utilizes
Friday, May 15, 2020
Of Human Bondage by William Somerset Maugham The Women in Philip s life In the novel Of Human Bondage, the main character, Philip Carey, has a myriad of people whom are very influential in his life. William Somerset Maugham portrays Philip as having three women in his life that are of great importance to Philip s character. These three women are Mildred Rogers, Norah Nesbit, and Sally Athelny. Mildred is a negative influence on Philip whereas the other two women serve as positive influences in Philip s life. Of the three, Philip loves Mildred the most, though Mildred loves him not. Mildred is a negative influence on Philip. Though he loves her, she doesn t love him back. She is grateful toward Philip and rewards him with variousÃ¢â¬ ¦show more contentÃ¢â¬ ¦She is successful in convincing Philip to focus on his studies rather than herself. Therefore when he s with her, he passes all three exams without any trouble and has earned his vacation that he is reluctant to go on, but is persuaded by thoughtful Norah to do so. Unlike Mildred, Norah appreciates Philip and doesn t allow him to waste his money. Philip intentionally chose Norah s ilkShow MoreRelatedAnalysis Of William Maugham s Of Human Bondage 1653 Words Ã |Ã 7 PagesHonors English IV 18/29 May 2015 A Dragging Feeling Every human has their own unique form of bondage from which they must break free. In Of Human Bondage, William Maugham uses main protagonist, Philip Carey, as a mortal character that serves as a thin line of difference between the world within the novel and one that Maugham himself lived in. Both Philip and Maugham serve as a parallel to each other, each portrayed with their own form of bondage tied to their humanity. From the analytical standpoint
Thursday, May 14, 2020
Sample details Pages: 14 Words: 4340 Downloads: 2 Date added: 2017/06/26 Category Statistics Essay Did you like this example? What is honour killing? Every year, hundereds of women are killed in the name of honour by their family members because they have brought shame to the family and the community. Honour killing is defined murdering a member of the family in the name of honour, it is usually the female who is murdered for bringing shame to the family. In rare cases, men are also murdered if they bring dishonour to their family or community. DonÃ¢â¬â¢t waste time! Our writers will create an original "Honour Killing Women | Cultural Studies Dissertations" essay for you Create order It is believed that honour killing is a private family affair and it should remain between the four walls of the house, no accurate statistics are available on this social evil. It should be noted that honour killing is a gender-neutral concept but overwhelming majority victims are women. The only fundamental difference is that the male accussed of dishonouring might be given a chance to explain his situation before the triabl leaders and can escape the death penalty by giving compensation to the family who has been dishonoured. Women are rarely given oppurtunaties to explain their side of the story and the only possible way to restore the honour is by killing the women who has brought shame to the family. Where does it take place? Pakistan consists of four provinces known as Sindh, Balochistan, Punjab and North West Frontier Province(NWFP). The menance known as honour killing frequently all four provinces of Pakistan. In Sindh, the practise of honour killing is known as Karo Kari, meaning black female and black male. In Balochistan it is known Siahkal. The majority of the honour killings take place in rural areas, however, there have been some reported incidents of honour killings in urban cities of Pakistan such as Karachi and Lahore. How can one be dishonoured? Honour killings for a choosing a marriage partner According to the article 16 of Universal Declaration of human rights, both men and women of full age, irrespective race, religion and nationality can enter into marriage with any partner of their choice. It is our fundamental to marry a partner of our choice, however in Pakistan, women are not encouraged to have this right because women are seen as personal property of a man, therefore women should exercise their right. Women are seen as commodity owned and controlled by their fathers, husbands and brothers. Women are not suppose to express any desires and feelings contrary to the wishes of their fathers, husbands, and brothers. Traiditionally women are not allowed to choose their partners for marriage. The head of the family, usually the father, chooses the groom. the bride does not have any say in the process and any defiance against the process is considered a taboo. Women who have been succesful in marrying partners of their choice are often threatened by their father that charges of zina(unlawful sexual relations) would be brought against them. Under the islamic law of marriage, the wali(the closest male adult relative) has the responsibilty and authority with respect to marriage, the wali is usually the father and if it can be proved that the father did not give consent to the marriage then it will be considered invalid, if marriage is invalid then any sexual relations which took place between the man and the women would amount to zina. Most of the time, family members take matters into their own hands instead of going to court. A women who married a man of her choice was murdered outside Peshawar court by her brother in the name of honour. Women seeking divorce The article 16 of Universal declaration of human rights states that men and woman should have equal rights regarding dissolution of marriage. Under Islamic marriage law, a man is allowed to divorce his wife anytime, the divorce can be given verbally but a women cannot divorce her husband, she can apply for Khula(Separation) in the court of law. Divorce is seen as a very serious problem in the muslim world and muslim women are enouraged to avoid divorce at any cost, even if it means by putting up with a severely abusive husband. In 1999, Saima Sarwar was shot dead in a lawyers office because she attempted to obtain divorce from her husband severely abusive husband. The killing was instructed by her uncle but he was soon released Qisas and Diyat laws which states that the person(s) involved in killing will go free if he is pardoned by the Wali of the victim.Her uncle went unpunised as he was pardoned by her husbad and father in the capacity of Wali. It should be noted that Saima Sarwar belonged to a upper-class prominent family, her father is a entrepenuer and the mother is a doctor, this case shows the social evil in question is a cause of concern for both rural and urban population. The local newspapers in the region overwhemingly supported the killing, arguing that it was accordance to the tradition and therefore it cannot be a crime. Honour killings for rape A woman brings shame to the family if she becomes a victim of rape. In 1999, a 16 year old mentally-retarded girl was raped on many occasions by junior clerk of the local government department of agriculture in hotel in Parachinar, NWFP. The uncle of the girl lodged a complain, the accussed was taken into protective custody and the girl was handed to her tribe. The Jirga(tribal court) decided that she has brought shame to her tribe and the honour can only be restored by killing her. She was shot dead in front of tribal gathering. Get rich quick scheme? Ratio of honor killings is higher in those provinces where agriculture lands are abundant. Land is the main reason behind a majority of honor killing incidents in Sindh and Punjab. In overwhelming majority of cases, there is always a ulterior motive such as lust for money, land, lust for another women or to conceal other crimes. Many individuals exploit the concept of honour killing for gaining compensation or land. If both accused of karo kari are murdered then the matter usually ends but if only kari is killed and karo escapes, the karo has to compensate the affected man by giving him money, land or another women. Nafisa Shah, a leading human rights activist describes honour killing as industry which has range of stakeholders including tribes people, police administration and tribal mediators, honour killing is used as an excuse to hide sins and gain money. Police accept bribes of about 7000 rupees(equivalent to 70) for not investigating claims of honour killing. The International Law International human rights law recognises honour crimes as a form violence against women, therefore it is a direct violation womens right to life and security; freedom from torture and cruel, inhuman, and degrading treatment; and the right to equality before the law and equal protection of the law. Honor crimes also violate rights guaranteed to women by the UN Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination against Women (CEDAW), such as the right to freely choose ones spouse and the right to equality in marriage. CEDAWs General Recommendation Number 19 defines gender-based violence as a form of discrimination against women and makes explicit reference to honor crimes. CEDAW obligates States to protect women from gender-based violence, including violence committed by family members and to prevent, investigate, and punish acts of violence against women. The Convention also requires States to disqualify honor as a legal defense for acts of violence against women. The UN Declaration on the Elimination of Violence Against Women echoes these obligations and states that, States should condemn violence against women and should not invoke any custom, tradition or religious consideration to avoid their obligations with respect to its elimination (Article 4). International human rights law is enforced through the state and by way of treaties. A state becoming the party to a international treaty will be bound by th treaty and it is the states responsibility and duty to protect the rights of the citizens. Pakistan is a party to a Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination against Women, the treaty has been ratified and as a result of that, the Pakistani government ammended the Criminal Act 2004 which makes Honour killing a punishable offence. Apart from making the ammendment to Criminal Act 2004, Pakistan has taken several other intitaves to curb honour killings and domestic violence against women: Establishment of Gender Crime Cell Gender Crime Cell was established in National Bureau on 1st April 2006 to curb violence against women. The function of the Cell is to gather, collate and analyse data on cases of violence against women. The cell will act as central repository of relevant data on cases of violence against women and it will assist top-policy makers in developing holistic and effective policy countermeasures to control the social evil volence against women. Gender and Human Rights Sensitization To sensitize the police and to further improve law enforcement response to human rights situations, a comprehensive program has been included in the cirruculum of police training schools, police training colleges and national police academy. Cooperation/Collaboration with NGOs/ Civil society National Police Bureau has welcomed visits from NGOs who monitored severall police stations across the country, the main aim was to look into the business procedures, handling of public complaints against police, infra-structure, and facilities in lock-up of the stations. According to the Government of Pakistan, all these measures will help directly or indirectly contribute against curbing crimes against women. After reading the responses submitted to UN by the Government of Pakistan regarding the issues relating to violence against women, one would get the impression that Pakistan is trying to tackle the problem, some measures have been to curb the problem mentioned but the measures taken are not adequate enough to protect women, controversial laws such as Qisas still exist which are often exploited by murderers. Qisas Law Qisas law is relates to offences involving bodily injury or loss of life. The aim of the Qisas law is to put the victims family in control, ir is up to the family members of the victim to decide whether to bring an action against the murderer or pardon the murderer. Under the law, murdering a family member virtually carries no punishment as the other family members have the right to pardon the killer. In June 2002, Zakir killed 18- year Sabiha on suspicion that she had become pregnant, Zakir was pardoned by uncle of Sabiha, therefore his crime went unpunished. In a situation like such as this, courts and law enforcement agencies cannot take further action if the pardon is granted by the family member of the victim. n 90 percent cases of honor killings, the culprits are close relatives and therefore they are easily forgiven by the family of the deceased, in order successfully tackle this social evil, Qisas and Diyat Ordinance should not be in practise at all as it allows murderers to walk away free. It is evident that more needs to be done to tacke the menance known as honour killing, but the question what can the further steps can UN take to ensure that Pakistani Government makes further ammendments to the law to ensure that no murderers goes unpunished? The role of United Nations The human rights machinery in the UN systems works in three areas: information, analyis and policy development; provision of support to human rights bodies and organs; and promotion and protection of human rights. In order for this machinery to be successful, the UN has developed human rights institutions at the country level. The Office of the High Commissioner for Human Rights(OHCHR) assigns human rights advisers to country teams and their aim is to advance human rights through legislative, judicial and other enforcement mechanisms. The UN has created commitees to oversee implementation of implementation human rights but the commitees have a limited power to investigate or monitor violations of human rights. The UN machinery is merely way of recording information. If a state fails to comply with demands of UN then procedures usually range from coaxing to naming and shaming, it is very rare that sanctions are imposed for human rights violations because of the undesirable consequences. UN is also having monetary problem, many of the major member states have refused to pay their assesed share of costs, the guaranteed budget of OHCHR has fallen less than half. United nations is not effective in curbing human rights violations, it has no other to make sure that the human rights are not violated, they do not have effective mechanisms to make sure that human rights are enforced and they do not have the necessary resources. Simply by signing and ratifying a treaty does not ensure that the State will carry their duties and protect human rights. The only serious measure which the UN can take is impose sanctions. It is possible to impose sanctions solely on the basis of human rights, imposing sanctions for breaches of human rights is rare. Should the UN impose sanctions to pressurize the Government? UN can impose sanctions such as diplomatic isolation , restrictions on international travel, trade and financial transactions. Sanctions is regarded a tool created to ensure that States comply with demands of UN. Imposing may seem as attractive option but it can discredited on the basis of its harsh consequences on the citizens of the state. Sanctions have a bad history as they inflict undeniable pain on the citizens which the UN is trying to protect. If UN was to impose trade and financial sanctions to pressurise Pakistan to do more to curb honour killlings, then it is highly unlikely the sanction will work because Pakistan already a poor country, 17% of the population lives under $1 a day. Pakistan economy nearly went bankrupt as a result of sanctions imposed by UN for carrying out nuclear tests. Economic sanctions means that the Pakistan economy will suffer and therefore the people of Pakistan will suffer, the overall level of poverty will increase and it is likely that honour killings will increase as well because honour killings are often carried to gain compensation or land. Sanctions will have a counter-productive effect on Pakistan, therefore it should be avoided. The role of NGOs Traditionally NGOs are considered to be more effective than United Nations, in the sense that they are better at monitoring than UN. NGOs tend to focus on one issue at a time compared to UN which focuses and many issues at a time, thus there is overload of work within the UN, therefore the procedure of monitoring is not effective. NGOs do not have any authority, it can pressurise Government by way of protest, NGOs can run aware campaigns and provide support and counciling services to the victims. NGOs cannot directlty enforce human rights, for human rights to be enforced, NGOs rely on courts, there are still loopholes in the law which favour the murderer, unless the loopholes are closed, the NGOs will not be effective. Majority of honour killings take place in remote areas such as NWFP due to poor infrastructure, as a result of poor infrastructure, it can be very difficult for NGOs to monitor remote areas of Pakistan. According to Khawar Mumtaz, a leading human rights activist said there were many as eight NGOs working in the NWFP and for betterment of women. The organisations were targeted by religious extremists, the houses of workers and directors were destroyed. The NGOs had to close their operations and flee from NWFP because of security concerns. Who else can help? Apart from the United Nations and NGOs, countries such as United Kingdom can help to tackle problems such as honour killings in Pakistan by giving them aid, which then can be used to improve the situation of human rights in Pakistan. The United Kingdom donated 2m in 2006 to set up a gender and justice protection fund, the main aim of the fund is to curb violence against women. Many critics argue that the aid which is given is not always spent on protection of human rights due to high levels of corruption within the the Government. How can we fight this social evil? Legal measures The Government of Pakistan must repeal the Qisas law as it provides a loophole for murderers to exploit, the fight against the menance cannot be won unless Pakistani Government makes further ammendments to law. Adopt a legislation which would criminalise all forms of domestic violence, The UN has developed a framework for a model legislation which can be adopted. Honour killing should be treated as a crime against the state and Preventive measures Run campaigns to inform citizens of their human rights througout the country. Currently Ministry of Law, Justice and Human Rights is running a human rights mass awareness campaign throughout the country. The campaign is approached through print and electronic media, the campaign is delivered in the form of jingles, talk shows, commercials, slogans and promotional material in the Newspapers. In remote areas such as NWFP and interior Sindh, the people dont usually have access to electronic media or newspapers. The literacy levels are low in pakistan, the literacy rate for women in 16%, this means that media is ineffective in remote areas because there is no televisions and majority of the women cannot read and write. The women who live in remote areas are most vunerable. Honour killing crimes are under-reported, as a result it is not possible to estimate the real magnitude of the problem. Monitoring and collecting information would help the Government to understand the problem better, and therefore it will enable the Government to come up with better strategy. Protective measures Provide adequate protection to human rights activists and lawyers, often leading human rights activits such as Hina Jilani and Asma Jehangir. In one incident, the two daughters of Asma Jehangir were assaulted and illegally held for several hours along with their friends by armed persons because they were making a video clip. The police did eventually arrive but failed to take any action againt the perpertrators, the police asked Asma Jehangir to remain quiet otherwise the girls would be kidnapped, raped and killed. If activists are not adequately protected by law enforcement agencies then they will not be able to fight for protection of human rights. Long term strategies Honour killing is not a recent phenomoen, similar practices have been known since ancient Roman times, when the Pater Familias (senior male within a household) retained the right to kill an unmarried but sexually active daughter or an adulterous wife. In order to fully eradicate this menance, we should look at the true root causes in order to curb this heinous crime against women. The three main factors are: Male domination Financial dependency Lack of education Male domination Both men and women should be represented equally in all public institutions, most importantly there should be proportiante representaion of women in the Government. The National Assemebly of Pakistan(equivalent to Parliament) has a total number 342 seats and 60 seats are reserved for women, only 17.5% of seats are occupied by women, in order to protect rights of women, it is imperative they are represented proportionaly in the Government. At the moment, there are few women in the Government who are holding key Government ministry, Sherry Rehman is the only women who is holding the Ministry of Information and Broadcasting which considered one of the important ministries. Recently Dr Fehmida Mirza was elected as the Speaker of National Assembly, she is the first woman is Pakistan to be elected as the Speaker of Natioanl Assembly. Late Benazir Bhutto was the first female prime minister of a muslim country. To end male domination, women should participate in politics, proportiante representation would mean that it will not possible to pass discriminatory laws in future against women such as Hudood ordinance as women would have a greater say in the law making process. Financial dependency Agriculture is the largest of economy of Pakistan, 79.8% of rural women are engaged in some sort of agricultural work. Majority of rural women have dual responsibilties, they have to look after house and work in agricultural land as well but they are grossly underpaid, in many cases they are not paid at all. Most women living in rural areas of Pakistan are not aware of their rights such as equal pay, the Government should run campaigns to empower women and inform them of their rights. The Government should run courses to give women vocational training, this would improve womens capacity to earn by increasing womens access to source of livelihood, in particular cottage industry, livestock production and agriculture. Only 9% of the jobs in the services industry of Pakistan are done by women. The Government should encourgae equal employment oppurtunities, it was only 2001 when an Act was introduced which ensures equal remunaration for men and women for work of equal value. Study carried by a NGO confirmed the widespread occurrence of sexual harrasment of women at the workplace, the Government of Pakistan been able to implement laws which adequately protect women at the workplace. Government should undertake measure to make places more safe so women could work without fear of discrimination and harassment. Lack of education Only 16% of women in Pakistan are literate. Illiteracy rates are very high Pakistan. The education sector in suffering from inadequate financing and infrastructure. The budget allocated to education sector is low, Pakistan is one of the twelve countries who spend 2% of their GDP on eduction sector. Education needs to be improved, more schools are needed in Pakistan so more girls could attend school. How practical is it to enforce rights in Pakistan? Lack of eductation and financial independence are the main factors which stop from going to relevant law authorities for protection of their human rights, low literacy rate and lack of awareness does stop women for seeking protection against violations of human rights. Also approching the judiciary through a lawyer can be a expensive proposition, therefore women do not attempt to take any action. Democracy and human rights It is believed that military regime are the worst offenders of human rights, from November 1999 to Feburary 2008, General Pervez Musharraf, a army general has enjoyed absolute power over Pakistan. In his term many human rights abuses took place such lal masjid killings and he sacked 12 judges out of 17 judges to install his own hand picked judges. General Pervez Musharrafs human rights record has been poor. Elections took place on 18th Feburary 2008, most specators believe that elections were free and fair and democracy was restored. Recently the new Government ratified a key UN human rights treaty and signed two others, this suggests that the new democratic Government is serious about human rights issues and the position of human rights should be better under the Government of Pakistan Peoples Party. For many years, a military general had absolute power over Pakistan, the military regime was rarely criticised by USA or UK because of Pakistan position against war on terror, infact he was praised by George W Bush and Tony Blair for his role despite the fact that he committed various violations of international law during his tenure, UN never imposed any economic sanctions on Pakistan, infact economic sanctions were lifted which were on Pakistan for conducting nuclear tests in 1997 after he promised support to hunt Osama bin Laden. Human rights violations in Pakistan are often ignored by major member states such USA and UK. The major member states did provide immunity to a dictator against human right violations, If USA and UK would have not supported Musharraf and would have taken steps earlier to restore democracy in Pakistan then the human rights situations would have been far improved by now. Jirga system Jirga is defined a tribal assembly consisting of male elders of the tribe. Majority of the cases relating to honour killings are decided in Jirga instead of a formal court. Jirga should be banned because the system is unfit to provide justice to women, male elders are biased towards women, trial by jirga is the prime protector of the tradition of honour killing. The tribal assembly usually consists of uneducated male elders who do not have the knowledge and the skills to judge. They do not have any jurisdiction to impose capital punishments. Sindh is the only province of Pakistan where the panchayat(equivalent to Jirgra system) have been banned, Jirga system still operational in Baluchistan and North West Frontier Province of Pakistan. Jirga system should be be completely banned throughout Pakistan, the only reason why Jirga system is still operational in rural parts of Pakistan because it seen as a cheaper alternative. Any hope? Pakistan is grappling with many crisis at the moment, the burning of judiciary is still unsolved. There is shortage flour and food prices are rising dramatically. There is severe shortage of basic neccesaties such as electricity and clean water in Pakistan. Recently, one of the most popular leader of Pakistan was shot dead. The new Pakistani Government is facing many problems and as result of that, they are not able to fully concentrate human rights issues, honour killings have rarely received any attention from the media or the new Government. We can only hope that the new Government takes positive steps to curb this social evil, so far there has been no progress made by the new Government to address this problem. Pakistan as a suffering from increasing unemployment, increasing inflation and growing anger and frustrations with the system, lack of opportunities, all these factors can lead to violence against women, all tend to build aggravation in men. At the end of the day, its the women who are at the receiving end of the vented frustration, thus violence against women occurs as a direct result.
Wednesday, May 6, 2020
Matt (ie) Ã¢â¬Å"I thought I was this crazy person who liked to wear womenÃ¢â¬â¢s clothes and I didnÃ¢â¬â¢t hardly allow myself to go into deeper parts of itÃ¢â¬ . The effects finally hit full force for Matt (ie) around the age of 40 as Matt (ie) got deeper into yoga. One day while in New Mexico meditating in the woods, something broke loose in Matt (ie)Ã¢â¬â¢s consciousness, Matt (ie) felt like a woman. This changed everything; Matt (ie) moved a different way, when looking in the mirror or hearing the voice from inside it didnÃ¢â¬â¢t seem possible (line 72-91). Kristen A. Burgess, Emory University School of Medicine and Charles F Gillespie M.D., PhD, department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, Emory University School of Medicine, state that Ã¢â¬Å"gender identity disorder is a mental disorder in which gender identity is incongruent with anatomical sexÃ¢â¬ . Individuals experience different degrees of unhappiness with their sex at birth, which in turn causes them to pursue the life and body of the opposite sex (2010). Does this mean that Matt (ie) has a mental disorder? Would this explain why when Matt (ie) went to a Shaman and the Shaman gave Matt (ie) all kinds of stories, like Matt (ie) was Ã¢â¬Å"possessed by a fairyÃ¢â¬ or Matt (ie) was Ã¢â¬Å"touching this side or that side of his/her selfÃ¢â¬ ? How about the depression and drinking that comes along with being so conflicted? Through all of this Matt (ie) went back into the deep meditation that opened the door in the first place and Ã¢â¬Å"realized this was no spirit or fairy,Show MoreRelatedGender Identity Disorder Essays1031 Words Ã |Ã 5 PagesLiving a life feeling out of place, with the wrong feelings, and in the wrong body, for a person with Gender Identity Disorder, this is how they feel day to day. 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The film 8 Mile, directed by Curtis Hanson, is the typical American story of struggle and the eventual overcoming of obstacles and evil. Upon closer look, the film is arguably a socioeconomic and racial discourse. It focuses on the ascension of Marshall Mathers into the rap industry, previously dominated by African-American males. RabbitÃ¢â¬â¢s race, gender, and class, all contribute to his identity and the meaning of the film, as well as contributing to EminemÃ¢â¬â¢s image. Several themes are defined through the movieÃ¢â¬â¢s underlying discourse of race and class: the commodification of black culture, racial opposition, Ã¢â¬Å"passingÃ¢â¬ , cross-cultural bonding, white heroism and white masculinity, the reversal of white privilege into a disadvantage, andÃ¢â¬ ¦show more contentÃ¢â¬ ¦The film starts with a black screen before EminemÃ¢â¬â¢s white face appears. Jimmy lives on the opposite side of 8 Mile Road, which separates him from the urban blacks, and makes him a privi leged suburban white. His mission in this movie to cross that literal and psychological border (8 Mile Road) and become accepted as a rapper despite his skin color. It is argued that RabbitÃ¢â¬â¢s character is a tourist who ventures into black culture, and on the way, masters their art and dominates their industry (Jennings 2008). Therefore, Eminem, and the director Curtis Hutton, white people writing about an African-American dominated industry, have now commodified the culture (Jennings 2008). This translates to EminemÃ¢â¬â¢s career and his success in the industry. But EminemÃ¢â¬â¢s success is ultimately due to his ability to encompass the characteristics of black culture while maintaining his position as a white male: Ã¢â¬Å"affiliations with black masculinity provide cultural acceptance and authenticity, which fuel his entry into hip-hop culture. White masculinity provides mobility, ambivalence from white audiences, and commercial successÃ¢â¬ (Dawkins 465). Therefore b y Ã¢â¬Å"walkingÃ¢â¬ the spaces between black and white masculinity and never committing to one, he masters the industry. Somehow he uses both racial characterizations as privileges (Dawkins 464-465). According to Eric King Watts, Eminem uses his passage into a Ã¢â¬Å"darkÃ¢â¬ or black world (the